To combat climate change and its negative effects, 197 countries adopted the Paris Agreement at COP21 on 12 December 2015 in Paris. The agreement, which came into force less than a year later, aims to significantly reduce global greenhouse gas emissions and limit global temperature rise to 2 degrees Celsius this century, while continuing to limit the rise to 1.5 degrees. The Paris Agreement is an environmental agreement that was adopted by almost all nations in 2015 to combat climate change and its negative effects. The agreement aims to significantly reduce global greenhouse gas emissions in order to limit global temperature increase to 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels this century, while continuing to pursue ways to limit the increase to 1.5 degrees. The agreement provides for the commitment of all major emitters to reduce their pollution from climate change and to strengthen these commitments over time. It provides developed countries with a means to assist developing countries in their mitigation and adaptation efforts and establishes a framework for monitoring, reporting and strengthening countries` individual and collective climate goals. The UN report warns that the terrible effects of climate change will come sooner than expected. This is why we need to follow the report`s advice and why every tonne of emissions reduction can make a difference. The 32-part document sets out a framework for global action on climate change, including climate change mitigation and adaptation, support for developing countries and transparency of reporting, and strengthening climate change goals. Here`s what needs to be done: the implementation of the agreement by all the Member States combined is evaluated every five years, with the first evaluation in 2023. The result will be used as an input for new national contributions from Member States.
 The inventory will not be national contributions/achievements, but a collective analysis of what has been achieved and what remains to be done. A preliminary inventory-impact study was published in Nature Communications in April 2020. Based on a public policy database and a multi-model scenario analysis, the authors showed that the implementation of current strategies by 2030 leaves an average emission gap of 22.4 to 28.2 GtCO2eq, with optimal means to achieve targets well below 2 degrees Celsius and 1.5 degrees Celsius. If national contributions were fully implemented, this gap would be reduced by one-third. The countries assessed did not achieve their promised contributions with implemented measures (implementation deficit) or experienced a gap in ambition with optimal paths to well below 2oC. The study showed that all countries should accelerate the implementation of renewable technology strategies, while improving efficiency in emerging and fossil fuel-dependent countries is particularly important.  (a) to keep the increase in the average global temperature at a level well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to continue efforts to limit the increase in temperature to 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, which would significantly reduce the risks and effects of climate change; Unlike the Kyoto Protocol, which set legally binding emission reduction targets (as well as penalties for non-compliance) only for industrialized countries, the Paris Agreement requires all countries – rich, poor, developed and developing – to take their share and reduce their greenhouse gas emissions.